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Ecosystems

The lands of the Humber Arboretum include forests, meadows, wetlands, ponds, and the Humber River itself. Learn about the natural world you can discover without ever leaving the city. 

carolinian life zone

Carolinian Life Zone

The City of Toronto is on the edge of the Carolinian Life Zone. Known for its variety of deciduous trees (and the variety of wildlife that comes with them), this bioregion stretches across much of the eastern United States, but only the very northern edge reaches into Canada. That means many of the plants and animals which can be seen in places like the Humber Arboretum won't be found naturally occurring anywhere else in the country. Because much of Canada's Carolinian region has already been developed, it's especially important to protect the natural areas we have left.

native plants

Native Plants

The Carolinian is known for deciduous trees and shrubs with their leaves that change colour and drop off in the fall. The forests of the Humber Arboretum include Carolinian indicator species such as black walnut, shagbark hickory, pawpaw, ironwood, and Kentucky-coffee tree. Several types of maple are prevalent at the Arb, especially the hard-to-miss sugar maples hung with sap collection buckets at the end of winter. Spring brings ephemerals such as trout lily and trillium sessile – wildflowers that bloom when still-bare branches allow sunlight to reach the forest floor.

arboretum wildlife

Arboretum Wildlife

With a variety of habitats and the West Humber River serving as a transportation corridor for wildlife, there are many animals that live or travel through the Arboretum grounds. This includes white-tailed deer, chipmunks, groundhogs, beavers, coyotes, rabbits, raccoons, red foxes, and even Canada’s only marsupial the opossum. Fish, frogs, and turtles fill the ponds and river, including the snapping turtle – a species of special concern in Ontario. Birds are abundant at the Arb, which is major migration stopover, Depending on the time of year, hawks, owls, woodpeckers, waterfowl, songbirds, and many others soar, float, and perch around the grounds.

humber river

The Humber River

There are three branches to the Humber River – East, West and Main. The Arboretum sits on the 45 kilometre West branch, which runs from Caledon through Brampton before connecting to the Main Branch south of the Arboretum. In 1999 the Humber River was named a Canadian Heritage river in recognition of its "outstanding cultural and recreational values." It is the only designated heritage river in the Greater Toronto Area.